Bianco Brain and Spine Glossary

  1. Acoustic Neuroma – benign tumor originating from the myelin-forming cells of cranial nerve VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve).
  2. Adenoma – a benign tumor that over time could progress to become malignant; can grow from many different organs
  3. Aneurysm – bulge within a blood vessel because of weakening of the vessel wall where blood localizes.
  4. Arthroplasty – referred to as an “artificial disc”; it is a surgical procedure in which a degenerating intervertebral disc is replaced with an artificial device.
  5. Benign – medical term to describe a mild nonprogressive sickness; used in most terms to describe being non-cancerous.
  6. Chiari Malformation – brain malformation where the cerebellar tonsils & medulla are displaced downward through the foramen magnum sometimes resulting in hydrocephalus.
  7. Chordoma – malignant tumor that slowly grows and is thought to arise from the cellular remnants of the notochord.
  8. Cranipharyngioma – specific type of tumor originating from pituitary gland tissue; they are slow-growing and classified as benign.
  9. Degenerative Disc Disease – referred to as “DDD”; it is degeneration of the intervertebral disc.
  10. Discectomy – partial or complete removal of an intervertebral disc.
  11. Endoscopic – minimally invasive medical procedure performed through the use of a small tube.
  12. Ependymoma – tumor arising from the tissue of the central nervous system specifically the ependyma; in adults it is more commonly seen as a spinal tumor while in children the location is intracranial.
  13. Glioblastoma multiforme – primary brain tumor of which is the most common and most aggressive.
  14. Glioma – tumor of the brain or spine that arises from glial cells. It is more commonly seen as a brain tumor.
  15. Hydrocephalus – referred to as “water on the brain”; it is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles
  16. Laminectomy – removing part of the posterior arch of a vertebra in order to reach the spinal canal to remove a ruptured disc.
  17. Malignant – synonymous with cancer; it is a medical term used to describe a severe and progressively worsening disease.
  18. Meningioma – one of the more common primary tumors of the central nervous system of which can be either benign or malignant in nature.
  19. Neuropathy – degenerative state of the nervous system 
  20. Oligodendroglioma – a specific type of glioma that is believed to be derived from the oligodendrocytes.
  21. Radiculopathy – spinal nerve root disease
  22. Radiosurgery – a non-invasive treatment of benign and malignant tumors by use of ionizing radiation with high precision.
  23. Scoliosis – lateral curvature of the spine
  24. Spinal Disc Herniation – a tear in the outer, fibrous ring of an intervertebral disc allowing the soft, central portion of the disc to bulge out.
  25. Spinal Fusion – fusing 2 or more vertebrae together for immobilization of the spine.
  26. Spinal Stenosis – narrowing of the spinal column that produces pressure on the nerve roots.
  27. Spondylosis – Degeneration & immobilization of vertebral bones in the spinal column.
  28. Stereotactic – surgical intervention that involves the use of a three-dimensional coordinate system to precisely locate targets within the body in order to perform a minimally-invasive biopsy or removal of the target.
  29. Transphenoidal – type of surgery strictly performed through the nose
  30. Trigeminal Neuralgia – twitching in the face and darting pain.